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Porous soil
It is very important for vigorous root development. It will enable oxygen to easily penetrate the soil, making respiration easier for the plants. Porous soil is sandy or clay loam. Clay soil, which is mostly found in Luzon and Visayas, is not conducive to the early development of fruit trees. Early planting on this type of soil results in stunted growth of the plant and in some cases, even death. In addition, those which survive require longer years to bear fruits. The problem with clay soil being compact slows down the root development thus requiring longer time before the seedling could eventually take off from the ground.

How to make clay soil porous
A newly planted tree shall easily take off from the ground if the planting medium is porous. Porous soil influences the vigorous root development and plant growth.
For small planting materials, dig two feet by two feet depth or bigger. This planting hole is enough for the early vigorous roots development. Mix the top (upper 6 inches black soil) with at least 1/3 rice hull, sand or sawdust of the total soil volume. To make the soil fertile, add 5% compost or organic fertilizer. This is the best planting medium for clay soil. For sandy loam soil, do not add any more rice hull, only organic fertilizer compost or decayed manure because a sandy soil is already porous.

Fertile soil
The fertility of the soil can be determined through its color. Volcanic soil, which is almost black in color, are the most fertile soil like that in Mt. Makiling (Laguna), Mt. Mayon (Albay), Taal volcano and Mt. Kanlaon (Negros). Fruit trees planted in these areas will grow fast and will produce sweet fruits.

Reddish soil found mostly in Tanay, Rizal and other Luzon areas are clay soil which needs to be added with organic fertilizer and other necessary macro-and-micro nutrients. Unless given proper care and balance fertilization, fruit trees planted here has slow growth and less fruiting than those planted in volcanic soil.

Well-drained soil
This is the most important requirement for the successful growth and development of plants. The trees must be provided with drainage canal for the easy removal of excess water especially during heavy continuous rain. If there is no drainage canal, plant the tree in a mound.

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