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     Asexually propagated seedlings have two parts. The lower portion is the rootstock usually of native varieties from seeds. Native rootstock is used for fast root development and resistance to pests and diseases as well as it is adopted to local condition. The upper portion is the scion or cultivars.
     All shoots that grow below the point of union (graft) must be removed. Side shoots arising from the rootstock can be easily noticed since it has longer shoots and broader leaves as compared to the scion.
     The growth of side shoots from the rootstock can be easily prevented by disbudding the primary or protruding bud on the trunk from the point of union downward. Use a grafting knife or any sharp knife to completely remove the bud which contains the primary, secondary and tertiary bud. If removed by hand, the remaining secondary and tertiary buds will grow again because there is still secondary or tertiary bud left. When the wound is big, paint it with a mixture of latex and 10% fungicide for immediate healing. This process of disbudding can be done right at the nursery or before the seedlings are planted in the field.
Formation of Low Crown
     Having a low crown is important for easy maintenance such as spraying, pruning and harvesting. For he tree to have low crown, all the growing points (primary bud) must be pinched to induce secondary buds, thus producing many lateral branches.
     Fruit trees that were not pinched will have few branches and tall crown.
Why do we need to pinch the primary buds or shoots?
     The growth hormones manufactured by the leaves are apical dominance which means that only the growing tip or primary bud is supplied with growth hormone for elongation. It can be observed in forest trees planted with closer distance that only a single shoot grow to form a straight log because the growth hormone only supply the primary shoots.
     To develop a low crown in fruit trees, always pinch the growing point or primary bud. After pinching or removing the primary bud, the growth hormone then supplies the two secondary buds. To induce more secondary bud to sprout and to have more lateral, spray it with growth hormone enhancer after pinching so more secondary bud will sprout (up to 9 shoots instead of 2).
     When all the shoots hardened or when leaves become green, pinch all primary buds again to induce the sprouting of more secondary buds. Spray it once more with growth enhancer to induce more secondary buds to sprout and form laterals.
Bending Laterals
     If during the early stage of growth the laterals grew long without small branches, bend all the laterals in opposite directions perpendicular to the ground using weight or tie it to a stick to make it in the position permanently. All the bud in the upper level along the laterals will now sprout, giving the tree more laterals.

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